Forest buffers (also called riparian buffers) are the trees, shrubs and other plants that grow next to streams and rivers, and are critical to the health of the Chesapeake Bay.
Clean water: Streamside trees & shrubs slow the flow of stormwater runoff, trapping sediment and allowing polluted water to soak into the forest floor’s sponge-like soil. Plant roots absorb nutrient pollution and store it in leaves & limbs. Deep root systems hold soil in place, stabilizing stream banks and reducing the amount of sediment that can wash into waterways. Buffers also protect those on land from rising floodwaters by deflecting heavy river flow during major storms.
Food, habitat & protection for wildlife: The trees, shrubs & other plants of forest buffers form layers of diverse habitats that native wildlife depends on for food, shelter and access to water. Forest buffers offer safe wildlife migration paths, creating forest “corridors”. Leaf litter, seeds & other plant materials dropped into the water form the foundation of the freshwater food chain, and fallen woody debris creates underwater habitat and provides food, shelter and spawning grounds for insects, amphibians, crustaceans & small filter feeders and fish. In summer, leafy canopies shade rivers and streams, keeping water temperatures cool and consistent. Without it, water temperatures would rise rapidly, fueling the growth of harmful algae blooms and stressing sensitive species. Cooler water also holds more oxygen, which aquatic species need to survive.
Take Action! Because forest buffers can drastically improve the health of local rivers & streams, buffer restoration is a critical part of cleaning up the Chesapeake Bay. Currently, an estimated 58% of the watershed’s 288,000 miles of stream banks and shorelines have forest buffers, but scientists have found that rivers and streams are not protected until 70% of their edges are buffered!
Important! If you are conducting development activities or altering vegetation (including removing invasive plants) in a Critical Area Buffer Zone (area of vegetation of at least 100 feet, measured landward from the mean high water line of tidal waters, tributary streams and tidal wetlands), you must work with your local government to develop a Buffer Management Plan.
Before You Start
- Overview: Project Planning Basics
- Overview: School Grounds Site Assessment
Design and Preparation
- Overview: Project Design & Preparation Basics
- Trees & Shrubs: Choosing, Sourcing & Determining Numbers
- Buffer Design Templates
- Overview: Project Maintenance Basics
- Tree & Shrub Maintenance Tips
- Identifying & Managing Threats to Woodlands
Using Your Project
- Overview: Using Your Project
- Eco Schools LEAF Sustainability Pathway
- Eco-Schools WOW-Watershed Sustainability Pathway
- Forests for the Bay (Scroll to Educator Resources)
- Eco-School Sustainability Pathways Lessons & Resources
- Eco School National Standards & Curriculum Alignment
- Project Learning Tree Curriculum Offerings
- Eco Schools Green STEM Initiative